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Solderable Materials

Solderable Materials

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Non-wetting (Poor wetting) – In soldering and metal related activities, wetting is the attribute of solder where it becomes molten at a given temperature and only in the...

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Solderable Materials

Solderable Materials

Posted by on

Non-wetting (Poor wetting) – In soldering and metal related activities, wetting is the attribute of solder where it becomes molten at a given temperature and only in the...

Read More

Solderable Materials

Solderable Materials

Posted by on

Non-wetting (Poor wetting) – In soldering and metal related activities, wetting is the attribute of solder where it becomes molten at a given temperature and only in the...

Read More

Solderable Materials

Solderable Materials

Posted by on

Non-wetting (Poor wetting) – In soldering and metal related activities, wetting is the attribute of solder where it becomes molten at a given temperature and only in the...

Read More

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Soldering Pocket Guide II

Soldering Pocket Guide II

Flux core solder- Flux is the element used to reduce the oxidized metals to their metallic state. It is in essence a reducing agent that undoes the effects of oxidization. Rosin-coated solder on the other hand is a type of flux extracted from the sap of pine trees and exhibits various electrical characteristics depending on its temperature. In its natural state, it does not conduct electricity and is non-corrosive. However, at higher temperatures, it becomes corrosive and has the ability to reverse oxidization in metals.

FR4- This is the base material that gives a PCB its thickness. For most printed circuit boards, this is usually fiberglass or kapton. The substrate, often known as FR4, gives the PCBs the rigidity required to hold several components in place. The thickness and weight of the substrate will vary from one manufacturer to the other.

Fumes- This is a significant health hazard present in the use of solder. When lead is heated, it turns to lead oxide and through naturally occurring can cause serious health problems..The elements contained in solder and flux coating in solder cause dangerous fumes once exposed to temperatures above a certain level. Resin for example turns to a wide range of toxic gases that have been known to cause respiratory problems especially if one is exposed consistently to the fumes for a significant period of time.

Fire hazard- This is perhaps the most significant potential risk in soldering that may arise as a result of electrical failures. Soldering iron contain e heat resistive element through which an electric current is passed. Failure in this or another component of the iron could cause a fire. Fires could also result from any other point within the electrical connection.

Flux residue- This is an impurity present in a solder joint that arises from contamination related to use of flux in soldering.

Solderable Materials

Solderable Materials

Non-wetting (Poor wetting) – In soldering and metal related activities, wetting is the attribute of solder where it becomes molten at a given temperature and only in the presence of a certain amount of flux. Wetting is very important for solder to form strong contact with leads and boards that are being soldered. However, there are often instances where the solder fails to form good bonds with the pad, leads or both. This causes poorly-formed solder balls usually biased to one or none of the components.

Non-solderable materials- These are materials that cannot be soldered on using regular soldering. Factors that affect the solderability of materials include their melting points, affinity to metals, thermal mass and basic composition.

Noble metal- This is a term used to describe metals that are especially resistant to corrosion and oxidation especially when exposed to moist air. These include gold, rhodium, silver and platinum. These are however rarely used as alloys in soldering.

Non-activated flux- In soldering, flux is an agent that can serve various purposes such as cleaning, purifying, dissolving metal oxides and acting as a reducing agent that undoes the effects of oxidization. Basically, at room temperatures, most kinds of flux are inert. This however changes once the flux is exposed to high temperature levels. Once heated, flux becomes an active reducing agent and thus prevents the oxidization of metals into their respective metal oxides. This is necessary since the commonly used types of solder rarely attach to oxidized metals. Non-activated flux on the other hand is usually natural resin flux that has no activators added to it.

Non-polar solvent- This is non-ionized liquid and thus conducts electricity. Non polar solvents are used to dissolve non polar elements such as hydrogen carbons but cannot be used to dissolve polar elements such as basic inorganic salts

Soldering Metals

Soldering Metals

Oxide (metal) – A metal oxide is a non-metal compound formed when a metal is exposed to oxygen. Metal oxides are undesired in soldering and measures are often taken to prevent their formation. Metal oxides are usually unsolderable and prevent the regular formation of a good solder joint. The use of flux in soldering prevents oxidation.

Over-soldered (Excess solder) connection- This is the joint that occurs when too much solder is applied on a component lead or pad or both. This usually results in an almost spherical ball of solder. The downside to excess solder is that in most instances, wetting is very poor with the lead and pad and may therefore lead to a very poor electrical connection. This is easily solvable through desoldering and resoldering.

Out-gassing- Also known as gassing of flux, it is a common cause of soldering defects. This usually happens in wave soldering. The flux starts to gas owing to poor waving conditions and flux parameters. The gassing effect causes solder to disperse randomly and not stick evenly to the intended surface. This causes the formation of stray spatter.

Organic contamination- This is the occurrence of impurities on a soldering surface caused by an inorganic substance. Inorganic substances are generally those that do not contain any carbon. They include all metals, metal oxides and most chemical elements.

Offset land- A condition often associated with lifted pads. Lifted pads are rare but possible occurrences. It basically involves pad lifting from the printed circuit board once soldered. This does not happen with techniques such as the through-hole technique but is very possible with surface-mount techniques. It represents one of the hardest problems to solve in soldering since a lifted often disengages the copper track from the circuit board. However, some solutions may work in this situation.